The Chinese, therefore, had some good reasons for thinking themselves as the originators and heirs of the only civilization in their world. The
Second region, consist of
The third region consist of a large part of tributary states along china’s border such as Ryuku, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Himalaya, Malaysia, and a part of Kalimantan. Even though this region was claimed as china’s interest region, but the above region much more important for
The Fourth region consists of other
With this world order,
Further more, it is not simply that Chinese regarded their culture as superior in a material and aesthetic sense; they believe it to be superior, and universally valid. Though non Chinese people were not forced to acknowledge and adopt Chinese superiority, they were somewhat despised if they neglected the opportunity. Hence traditional
The root of culture and ideology
The Chinese image of world order is also colored by the assumptions, values and beliefs of the Confucian moral order. Indeed, the traditional Chinese image of world order was no more than a corollary of the Chinese image of internal order, and thus really an extended projection of its self image. Hence, the chief concern of
The essence of Chinese world order was sinocentric cosmology.
Limited contacts with west and the Byzantine world during the Tang Dynasty (618-906) merely confirmed the rightness of the sinocentric image. Even the Buddhist invasion, the most serious foreign challenge to Chinese culture until modern times, failed to modify Chinese perceptions. The Indian world view as expresses in Buddhism was devoid of political imperative. While Buddhism exerted a substantial and lasting influence on art and religious thought in traditional
Western Penetration and treaty system
In the beginning 19th century, British, French, Dutch and US were the nations dealing trade with China, although their trade activities were limited to a certain region and only contact with the government was allowed. At that time western trader viewed that opium is the only commodity attracting Chinese. Therefore their activities concentrated on this commodity.
The defeat suffered by
Chinese history as I elaborated above contributed a strong felling for modern Chinese leaders concerning
(1) Harry Harding,
(ii) C.P. Fritzgerald, “Chinese view the world” Year book of World Affairs, 1981, p.156.
(iv) Michael H. Hunt, Chinese Foreign Policy in Historical Perspective” in Harry Harding, China Foreign Relation 1980s (New Heaven : Yale University Press,1984),p.5.
(v) North, The foreign relations,p.54.
(vi) John Crammer-Byng, “The Chinese View of Their Place in the world” A Historical Perpective,” China Quarterly, No.53 (January/Maret, 1973).p.68.
(vii) Samuel S.Kim,
(viii) North, The Foreign Relations, p. 54-55.
(ix) Paul H. Clyde, The Far East (New Jersey: Prentice Hall,1958),p.21
(xii) North, The Foreign Relations,p.56.
(xiii) See, A.Doak Barnett, Communist China and
(xiv) As quoted by Liu from China Digest (October 5,1946) in